NCBI Biotechnology Glossary

NCBI Biotechnology Glossary

Glossary by the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Language: English

No. of terms:  220, hyperlinked.

Description:  I cannot resist other than quoting the almost romantic mission the NCBI published. “Understanding nature’s mute but elegant language of living cells is the quest of modern molecular biology. From an alphabet of only four letters representing the chemical subunits of DNA emerges a syntax of life processes whose most complex expression is man. The unraveling and use of this “alphabet” to form new “words and phrases” is a central focus of the field of molecular biology. The staggering volume of molecular data and its cryptic and subtle patterns have led to an absolute requirement for computerized databases and analysis tools. The challenge is in finding new approaches to deal with the volume and complexity of data and in providing researchers with better access to analysis and computing tools to advance understanding of our genetic legacy and its role in health and disease.”

The glossary by the NCBI is a good resource to recheck terms and abbreviations used in biotechnology.

Example Term:

Comparative Genomic Hybidization. CGH is a fluorescent molecular cytogenetic technique that identifies chromosomal aberrations and maps these changes to metaphase chromosomes. CGH can be used to generate a map of DNA copy number changes in tumor genomes. CGH is based on quantitative two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). DNA extracted from tumor cells is labeled in one color (e.g., green) and mixed in a 1:1 ratio with DNA from normal cells, which is labeled in a different color (e.g., red). The mixture is then applied to normal metaphase chromosomes. Portions of the genome that are equally represented in normal and tumor cells will appear orange, regions that are deleted in the tumor sample relative to the normal sample will appear red, and regions that are present in higher copy number in the tumor sample (because of amplification) will appear green. Special image analysis tools are necessary to quantitate the ratio of green-to-red fluorescence to determine whether a given region is more highly represented in the normal or in the tumor sample.

More Biotechnology  Dictionaries and Glossaries on DictionaryNet

Keywords: biotechnology, biotech, molecular biology, gene-splicing, genetic engineering, DNA, biological science

Quote as:  National Center for Biotechnology Information Glossary. In the public domain.


Posted on October 18, 2011, in Biotechnology and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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