Category Archives: Biotechnology

Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms

Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms

Glossary by the National Human Genome Research Institute.

Language: English

No. of terms:  250+, hyperlinks to related terms, share features (send to friend).

Description:  What a beauty! Not sure there are many people who can feel the same excitement I feel, when coming across such a glossary.  Simply an outstanding example what can be achieved if working on a glossary is done with knowledge and the aim that it really gets USED. And catching up with modern user experience the glossary can even be downloaded as a free application in AppStore.

The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) created the Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms to help everyone understand the terms and concepts used in genetic research. In addition to definitions, specialists in the field of genetics share their descriptions of terms, and many terms include images, animation and links to related terms.

The Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms features more than 250 common genetic terms pronounced and explained in an easy-to-understand way by leading scientists and professionals at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI).

The glossary by the NCBI is a good resource to recheck terms and abbreviations used in biotechnology.

Example Term:

Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering is the process of using recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology to alter the genetic makeup of an organism. Traditionally, humans have manipulated genomes indirectly by controlling breeding and selecting offspring with desired traits. Genetic engineering involves the direct manipulation of one or more genes. Most often, a gene from another species is added to an organism’s genome to give it a desired phenotype.

More Biotechnology  Dictionaries and Glossaries on DictionaryNet

Keywords: biotechnology, biotech, molecular biology, gene-splicing, genetic engineering, DNA, biological science

Quote as: In APA – National Institutes of Health. National Human Genome Research Institute. “Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms.”Retrieved dd,mm,yyyy, from http://www.genome.gov/glossary/

Genome Glossary

Genome Glossary

Glossary by the  DOE Human Genome Program ( Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science.)

Language: English

No. of terms:  350, hyperlinked, but no search function

Last updated:  26-Apr-07 (!)

Description:  This glossary is a relict of the Human Gnome Program,. “Completed in 2003, the Human Genome Project (HGP) was a 13-year project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. During the early years of the HGP, the Wellcome Trust (U.K.) became a major partner; additional contributions came from Japan, France, Germany, China, and others.” – So certainly not up-to-date, but still a good list for a basic introduction.

Example Term:

Gene expression

The process by which a gene’s coded information is converted into the structures present and operating in the cell. Expressed genes include those that are transcribed into mRNA and then translated into protein and those that are transcribed into RNA but not translated into protein (e.g., transfer and ribosomal RNAs).

More Biotechnology  Dictionaries and Glossaries on DictionaryNet

Keywords: biotechnology, biotech, molecular biology, gene-splicing, genetic engineering, DNA, biological science

Quote as:  Genome Glossary. DOE Human Genome Program. http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/glossary/glossary_g.shtml. The glossary is iIn the public domain.

NCBI Biotechnology Glossary

NCBI Biotechnology Glossary

Glossary by the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Language: English

No. of terms:  220, hyperlinked.

Description:  I cannot resist other than quoting the almost romantic mission the NCBI published. “Understanding nature’s mute but elegant language of living cells is the quest of modern molecular biology. From an alphabet of only four letters representing the chemical subunits of DNA emerges a syntax of life processes whose most complex expression is man. The unraveling and use of this “alphabet” to form new “words and phrases” is a central focus of the field of molecular biology. The staggering volume of molecular data and its cryptic and subtle patterns have led to an absolute requirement for computerized databases and analysis tools. The challenge is in finding new approaches to deal with the volume and complexity of data and in providing researchers with better access to analysis and computing tools to advance understanding of our genetic legacy and its role in health and disease.”

The glossary by the NCBI is a good resource to recheck terms and abbreviations used in biotechnology.

Example Term:

CGH
Comparative Genomic Hybidization. CGH is a fluorescent molecular cytogenetic technique that identifies chromosomal aberrations and maps these changes to metaphase chromosomes. CGH can be used to generate a map of DNA copy number changes in tumor genomes. CGH is based on quantitative two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). DNA extracted from tumor cells is labeled in one color (e.g., green) and mixed in a 1:1 ratio with DNA from normal cells, which is labeled in a different color (e.g., red). The mixture is then applied to normal metaphase chromosomes. Portions of the genome that are equally represented in normal and tumor cells will appear orange, regions that are deleted in the tumor sample relative to the normal sample will appear red, and regions that are present in higher copy number in the tumor sample (because of amplification) will appear green. Special image analysis tools are necessary to quantitate the ratio of green-to-red fluorescence to determine whether a given region is more highly represented in the normal or in the tumor sample.

More Biotechnology  Dictionaries and Glossaries on DictionaryNet

Keywords: biotechnology, biotech, molecular biology, gene-splicing, genetic engineering, DNA, biological science

Quote as:  National Center for Biotechnology Information Glossary. In the public domain.

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